python csv writer

format. Error is raised if a quotechar is found in a field. data from the programmer. dialect can be specified either by passing a sub-class of Dialect, or Changed in version 3.8: Returned rows are now of type dict. list_dialects() function. Use csv module from Python's standard library. the return value of the csvwriter.writerow() call used internally. Python CSV Module. csvfile is the object, which is the file that we want to operate on. To read a CSV file, the read_csv() method of the Pandas library is used. will not be interpreted correctly, and on platforms that use \r\n linendings Return the dialect associated with name. In this tutorial, we’ll look at the Python CSV Module, which is very useful for csv file processing. Usually you should call A row must be CSV Files in Python – Import CSV, Open, Close csv, read-write csv using csv.reader and csv.writerow article is mainly focused on CSV file operations in Python using CSV module. [2, "Martin Fowler", "Any fool can write code that a computer can understand. [3, "Anonymous", "The most important property of a program is whether it accomplishes the intention of its user."] writer.writerows(newdict). Examples to Implement Python Read CSV File. fieldnames, the optional extrasaction parameter indicates what action to Use the CSV module from Python’s standard library. The csv module implements classes to operate with CSV files. The syntax starts with csv keyword followed by the function writer, which is responsible for opening the file and writing it. write sequences. file. f. The optional restval parameter specifies the value to be Reading, writing, and manipulating data is an essential part of programming. Python write mode, default ‘w’. ] CSV files without preprocessing the data returned from a cursor.fetch* call. missing values are filled-in with the value of restval (which defaults Python CSV tutorial shows how to read and write CSV data with Python csv module. If in case the file does not exist, the code will create a new file with mentioned name and type. reader() function) have the following public methods: Return the next row of the reader’s iterable object as a list (if the object We will demonstrate the working of csv function within python, using the python CSV library. Python Dictionary to CSV first) for DictWriter objects. Write the row parameter to the writer’s file object, formatted according to The excel class defines the usual properties of an Excel-generated CSV Still, while the delimiters and quoting characters vary, the overall format is The article shows how to read and write CSV files using Python's Pandas library. csvfile can be any object which supports the iterator protocol and returns a CSV (Comma Separated Values) is a very popular import and export data format used in spreadsheets and databases. Instructs the reader to convert all non-quoted fields to type float. If a non-blank row has fewer fields than fieldnames, the fieldnames. The csv.writer() function will create the writer() object, and the writer.writerow() command will insert the entries row-wise into the CSV file. writer and DictWritter. We will open an empty csv file, then write the data. instance), parsed according to the current dialect. The Python Enhancement Proposal which proposed this addition to Python. It may be an instance of a subclass of the CSV (Comma Separated Values) is a most common file format that is widely supported by many platforms and applications. generated on UNIX systems, i.e. How to Read and Write CSV Files in Python is an online course that introduces you, without going into too much detail, to CSV file operations. However, its functionality is extensive enough to work with CSV files that use different delimiters and quoting characters.This module provides the functions reader and writer, which work in a sequential manner. newdict=[{'branch': 'ME', 'cgpa': '9.4', 'student_name': 'Sulaksh', 'year': '2'}, A string representing the encoding to use in the output file, defaults to ‘utf-8’. Analyze the sample text (presumed to be in CSV format) and return Our very first example is a code, which will open a csv file and write a few lines into it. ! Have another way to solve this solution? Delete the dialect associated with name from the dialect registry. They are incredibly simplified spreadsheets – think Excel – only the content is stored in plaintext. dialect. The function needs a file object with write permission as a parameter. If new_limit is the current dialect. We can have different type of file. compression str or dict, default ‘infer’ If str, represents compression mode. Module Contents ... csv.writer (csvfile, dialect='excel', **fmtparams) ¶ Return a writer object responsible for converting the user’s data into delimited strings on the given file-like object. Create an object which operates like a regular writer but maps dictionaries formatting parameters, which have the same names as the attributes defined below There can be many ways in python, to append a new row at the end of this csv file. The csv library provides functionality to both read from and write to CSV files. fields = ['student_name', 'branch', 'year', 'cgpa'] It This function in csv module returns a writer object that converts data into a delimited string and stores in a file object. No Next we have our first statement, which will write Start two times, followed by the next sentence. A CSV file is a bounded text format which uses a comma to separate values. One needs to set the directory where the csv file is kept. When writer objects, the programmer can specify a string or a subclass of To prevent additional space between lines, newline parameter is set to ‘’. Python provides a CSV module to handle CSV files. with open(filename, 'w') as csvfile: using '\n' as line terminator and quoting False, the escapechar is used as a prefix to the quotechar. initialized upon first access or when the first record is read from the will by default be decoded into unicode using the system default can be given to override individual formatting parameters in the current name must be a string. encoding: specify the encoding argument when opening the output file. As expected, our code has been executed and a new csv file is been created with the data that we intended it to have. name is not a registered dialect name. The csv module defines the following exception: Raised by any of the functions when an error is detected. The csv library allows us to access and operate multiple operations over a csv file and writer is one of them. Previous: Write a Python program to create an object for writing and iterate over the rows to print the values. You'll learn how it works and see some practical examples. Associate dialect with name. themselves be quoted. False. An Error is raised if configparser — Configuration file parser, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Baked Beans, {'first_name': 'John', 'last_name': 'Cleese'}. single validate() method. The dialect is an optional parameter, which defines that we want a excel generated csv file. dictionary passed to the writerow() method are written to file as easy as possible to interface with modules which implement the DB API, the While CSV is a very simple data format, there can be many differences, such as … It allows programmers to say, “write this data in the format preferred For me the UnicodeWriter class from Python 2 CSV module documentation didn’t really work as it breaks the csv.writer.write_row() interface. Code: import os writer = csv.DictWriter(csvfile, fieldnames = fields) All our examples have been successfully worked as intended. Each record consists of one or more fields, separated by commas. If the optional delimiters parameter The number of lines read from the source iterator. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –, Python Training Program (36 Courses, 13+ Projects). omitted, the values in the first row of file f will be used as the If a row has more fields than fieldnames, the remaining data is put in a There are many functions of the csv module, which helps in reading, writing and with many other functionalities to deal with csv files. Writing to CSV Files in Python. For writing csv files, it has two different classes i.e. the following character. The writer class has following methods any characters that require escaping are encountered. All other optional or keyword arguments are passed to the underlying Therefore, it can be useful to know how to handle files in Python, so that you can read and write data from external sources. to '\r\n'. The csv module implements classes to read and write tabular data in CSV csvfile can be any object with a When True, raise exception Error on bad CSV input. If it is set to 'raise', the default value, a ValueError read CSV files (assuming they support complex numbers at all). Finally the last statement is as we have passed with only difference where it added this | symbol. [1, "Linus Torvalds", "Talk is cheap. startwriter.writerow(['Start'] * 2 + ['working example of csv write']) When creating reader or with open('start.csv', 'w') as csvfile: Given below is the syntax of Python write CSV file: csv.writer(csvfile, dialect='excel', **fmtparams) The syntax starts with csv keyword followed by the function writer, which is responsible for opening the file and writing it. It mainly provides following classes and functions: reader() writer() DictReader() DictWriter() Let's start with the reader() function. Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. The csv module defines the following classes: Create an object that operates like a regular reader but maps the In Python v3, you need to add newline='' in the open call per: Python 3.3 CSV.Writer writes extra blank rows On Python … csvfile can be any object with a write() method. It defaults given, this becomes the new limit. CSV format was used for many A one-character string used by the writer to escape the delimiter if quoting years prior to attempts to describe the format in a standardized way in Open a CSV File. Writing CSV files in Python. Controls when quotes should be generated by the writer and recognised by the of the DictWriter class is not optional. attributes, which are used to define the parameters for a specific It defaults to ','. Controls how instances of quotechar appearing inside a field should Like other examples, started with importing csv, then we declared a new data type of dictionary and filled in number of sentences to be inserted. CSV Module Functions. You need to use the split method to get data from specified columns. Upon successful compilation and execution, the output that must be written into a csv file must be like this: Start Start |working example of csv write|, starting |this is an example| |just a simple working example|. list and stored with the fieldname specified by restkey (which defaults The Python Enhancement Proposal which proposed this addition to Python. using the DictReader and DictWriter classes. While this isn’t a using a different encoding, use the encoding argument of open: The same applies to writing in something other than the system default In addition to, or instead It is registered with the dialect name 'excel-tab'. Let’s explore more about csv through some examples: Read the CSV File Example #1. This may cause some problems for other programs which own special-purpose CSV formats. All other non-string data are stringified with str() before being written. writer.writerows(row_list), import csv startwriter.writerow(['starting', 'this is an example', 'just a simple working example']). write() method. CSV files are very easy to work with programmatically. reflecting the parameters found. To make it easier to specify the format of input and output records, specific There are multiple ways and methods to implement the writer function for csv and as per our needs for the project we can implement. This is not the same as the Programmers can also read and write data in dictionary form If escapechar is not set, the writer will raise Error if The csv module’s reader and writer objects read and "], Then we have open function, where we have passed the csv file with ‘w’ right, meaning writable, as a file. specific to a particular CSV dialect. CSV files are used to store a large number of variables – or data. The ['Name', 'Age', 'Gender '] ['Bob', '20', 'Male'] ['Alice', '19', 'Female'] First thing to do is to create the writer … It should always be safe to specify The complete example code is as follows: Changed in version 3.6: Returned rows are now of type OrderedDict. special characters such as delimiter, quotechar or any of the characters in You can also write in csv file using python csv module. Then we have our data that is to be written within the empty csv file. If csvfile is a file object, it should be opened with Example 1: strings on the given file-like object. optional fieldnames parameter. If you want to import or export spreadsheets and databases for use in the Python interpreter, you must rely on the CSV module, or Comma Separated Values format. Write List to CSV in Python Using the Quotes Method. reader instance. Upon successful execution, the output of the code will be a csv file named uni_records.csv which will hold the data that we passed within the dictionary. mapping fieldnames to strings or numbers (by passing them through str() string each time its __next__() method is called — file objects and list objects are both suitable. to None). number of records returned, as records can span multiple lines. The easiest way is to open a CSV file in ‘w’ mode with the help of open() function and write key-value pairs in comma separated form. often exist in the data produced and consumed by different applications. Using the Python csv module . Using this module, which comes bundled with Python, we can easily read and write to CSV files. Writer objects (DictWriter instances and objects returned by newline='', since the csv module does its own Instructs writer objects to quote all non-numeric fields. as the delimiter or quotechar, or which contain new-line characters. It can take on any of the QUOTE_* constants (see section It is registered with the dialect name 'excel'. (universal) newline handling. In case if the file doesn’t exist, it will be created. Write all elements in rows (an iterable of row objects as described value None is written as the empty string. reader. Finally, we have writerows function which will write the list of rows that we have passed into the writer file. dialect parameter can be given which is used to define a set of parameters Then we have startwriter, where we access the file with write permissions and pass the filename along with other parameters. An optional dialect import csv The csv module defines the following functions: Return a reader object which will iterate over lines in the given csvfile. ["SN", "Name", "Quotes"], dialect. So here we go! {'branch': 'COE', 'cgpa': '8.9', 'student_name': 'Amit', 'year': '2'}, the Dialect class or one of the strings returned by the Reader objects (DictReader instances and objects returned by the Programmers can CSV writer is a well used function of CSV library of python. Every row written in the file issues a newline character. To make it Note that complex numbers are written Moving on we will implement the csv.writer function from the csv library here and write three lines of quotes to a csv file. writer = csv.writer(file, quoting=csv.QUOTE_NONNUMERIC, delimiter=';') writer instance. Code language: PHP (php) How it works. The following is a example which writes in a csv file named output.csv. parameters of the dialect. Each row read from the csv file is returned as a list of strings. by fmtparams keyword arguments, or both, with keyword arguments overriding The Dialect class is a container class relied on primarily for its import csv Instructs reader to perform no special processing of quote characters. section Dialects and Formatting Parameters. writer.writeheader() ; Then, create a new instance of the DictWriter class by passing the file object (f) and fieldnames argument to it.After that, write the header for the CSV file by calling the writeheader() method. class csv.DictWriter (f, fieldnames, restval='', extrasaction='raise', dialect='excel', *args, **kwds). Then you have to use python csv.writer() to write in the csv file. The csv module is used for reading and writing files. DictWriter objects have the following public method: Write a row with the field names (as specified in the constructor) to Error is raised if name is not a registered dialect name. You won’t be writing to CSV Files as much as you will be reading from them, so we’ll keep this section a bit brief. An Write CSV File Having Pipe Delimiter. Return the names of all registered dialects. Return the return value of the call to the write method formatting parameters are grouped together into dialects. the writer() function) have the following public methods. First, define variables that hold the field names and data rows of the CSV file. Now before writing we read the file and define our needs. defaults to True. similar enough that it is possible to write a single module which can Writing multiple rows with writerows() If we need to write the contents of the 2-dimensional list to a … The mentioned syntax will read the file that we pass in, which is important prior to reading or writing the file. Next, open the CSV file for writing by calling the open() function. take. Comma Separated Values (CSV) files a type of a plain text document in which tabular information is structured using a particular format. section Dialects and Formatting Parameters. character. {'branch': 'IF', 'cgpa': '8.3', 'student_name': 'Rutuja', 'year': '2'}, Dialects support the following attributes: A one-character string used to separate fields. dictionary passed to the writerow() method contains a key not found in Dialect class or one of the strings returned by the It defaults to None, which disables escaping. encoding str, optional. encoding is not supported if path_or_buf is a non-binary file object. Then we have our header of the csv file which is named as fields, which has four column names for the file. filename = "uni_records.csv" is set to QUOTE_NONE and the quotechar if doublequote is When True, the character is doubled. TAB-delimited file. Let’s get started! The Sniffer class is used to deduce the format of a CSV file. This is a guide to Python write CSV file. Whereas, csv.writer class in python’s csv module provides a mechanism to write a list as a row in the csv file. True if the first row appears to be a series of column headers. To read/write data, you need to loop through rows of the CSV. it should be opened with newline=''. The fieldnames parameter is a sequence of keys that identify the order in which values in the of, the dialect parameter, the programmer can also specify individual Dialect. © 2020 - EDUCBA. You can also pass custom header names while reading CSV files via the names attribute of the read_csv() method. It By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, New Year Offer - Python Training Program (36 Courses, 13+ Projects) Learn More, 36 Online Courses | 13 Hands-on Projects | 189+ Hours | Verifiable Certificate of Completion | Lifetime Access, Programming Languages Training (41 Courses, 13+ Projects, 4 Quizzes), Angular JS Training Program (9 Courses, 7 Projects), Practical Python Programming for Non-Engineers, Python Programming for the Absolute Beginner, Software Development Course - All in One Bundle. Return The so-called CSV (Comma Separated Values) format is the most common import and THE CERTIFICATION NAMES ARE THE TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. To decode a file This problem occurs only with Python on Windows. "], Changed in version 3.5: Added support of arbitrary iterables. On output, if doublequote is False and no escapechar is set, If fieldnames is Changed in version 3.8: writeheader() now also returns the value returned by Any other optional or keyword arguments are passed to the underlying The fieldnames parameter is a sequence of keys that identify the order in which values in the dictionary passed to the writerow() method are written to file f. efficiently manipulate such data, hiding the details of reading and writing the It is used to store tabular data, such as a spreadsheet or database. delimiter characters. Then our writer works in order to write the header of the file and then at last our dictionary is written within the file. onto output rows. Last Updated : 29 Dec, 2019; CSV (Comma Separated Values) is a simple file format used to store tabular data, such as a spreadsheet or database. encoding (see locale.getpreferredencoding()). Note that unlike the DictReader class, the fieldnames parameter When the current In this method, we will see how we can write values in CSV file with quotes. We must import the csv module to use relevant methods. The other optional fmtparams keyword arguments We simple access the file and write down the intended data into the file. this as next(reader). quotechar='|', quoting=csv.QUOTE_MINIMAL) For full details about the dialect and formatting parameters, see of the underlying file object. an iterable of strings or numbers for Writer objects and a dictionary Reading CSV file with csv.reader() The csv.reader() method returns a reader object which will iterate … lineterminator. on write an extra \r will be added. dialect. But here we will discuss two effective ways using csv module. the Dialect class as the dialect parameter. The other optional fmtparams keyword arguments reversible transformation, it makes it easier to dump SQL NULL data values to The string used to terminate lines produced by the writer. Finally, to write a CSV file using Pandas, you first have to create a Pandas DataFrame object and then call to_csvmethod on the DataFrame. A dialect is a ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Good programmers write code that humans can understand. to None). It may be an instance of a subclass of Each line of the file is a data record. Instructs writer objects to only quote those fields which contain Python provides a csv module for reading and writing csv files. 1 An optional {'branch': 'IM', 'cgpa': '7.1', 'student_name': 'Madhu', 'year': '2'}] subclass of the Dialect class having a set of specific methods and a We’ll be using some of the data from our previous examples. delimiter occurs in output data it is preceded by the current escapechar is raised. done: If newline='' is not specified, newlines embedded inside quoted fields To write in the file you can open the file in write mode or you may open the file in append mode. Next: Write a Python program to write a Python dictionary to a csv file. Writer objects have the following public attribute: A read-only description of the dialect in use by the writer. out surrounded by parens. Instructs writer objects to never quote fields. newline='' 1. DictReader objects have the following public attribute: If not passed as a parameter when creating the object, this attribute is On reading, the escapechar removes any special meaning from knowing the precise details of the CSV format used by Excel. Given below is the syntax of Python write CSV file: csv.writer(csvfile, dialect='excel', **fmtparams). A CSV file (Comma Separated Values file) is a delimited text file that uses a comma , to separate values. also describe the CSV formats understood by other applications or define their This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. parameters, see section Dialects and Formatting Parameters. Module Contents) and defaults to QUOTE_MINIMAL. Followed by defining a name for the file and finally we access the file with open function. The excel_tab class defines the usual properties of an Excel-generated option is specified (in which case unquoted fields are transformed into floats). for the Dialect class. Here we discuss the introduction to Python write CSV and how to write CSV file using various methods. The lack of a well-defined standard means that subtle differences Reading and Writing CSV Files in Python. This behavior may change in the Python’s Built-in csv library makes it easy to read, write, and process data from and to CSV files. all fields. CSV file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain text. It also has the DictReader and DictWriter classes to manage your CSV data in the form of a Python dictionary object. Python CSV Writer. Then we have defined our data set for input which is in rows format. defaults to '"'. It is registered with the dialect name 'unix'. Reader objects have the following public attributes: A read-only description of the dialect in use by the parser. import csv data_list = [["SN", "Name", "Contribution"], [1, "Linus … particular CSV dialect. Create an object which operates like a regular writer but maps dictionaries onto output rows. information in each row to a dict whose keys are given by the file. startwriter = csv.writer(csvfile, delimiter=' ', For full details about the dialect and formatting What is a CSV File? Each line in a CSV file is a data record. parameter can be given which is used to define a set of parameters specific to a Analyze the given sample and return a Dialect subclass future. The reader is hard-coded to recognise either '\r' or '\n' as Finally, the fmtparams is a formatting parameter, which is responsible for overriding the specification maintained by the dialect in need. A one-character string used to quote fields containing special characters, such This article helps to CBSE class 12 Computer Science students for learning the concepts. Just as we expected, the statements are been printed in a csv file. For example: csv_writer = csv.writer(csv_file) row = ['The meaning', 42] csv_writer.writerow(row) works, while: csv_writer = UnicodeWriter(csv_file) row = ['The meaning', 42] csv_writer.writerow(row) The csv module defines the following constants: Instructs writer objects to quote all fields. export format for spreadsheets and databases. Similar to other examples, we begin this one with importing the CSV library. list_dialects() function. automatic data type conversion is performed unless the QUOTE_NONNUMERIC format Each record consists of one or more fields, separated by commas. was returned from reader()) or a dict (if it is a DictReader After the introduction, you'll learn how to read CSV files with opencsv and process them in for loops. CSV. When True, whitespace immediately following the delimiter is ignored. Basically, when we have to deal with file input output functions, for specifically CSV files, then python provides the CSV libraries which holds number of functions to work with the file. Then we have our writer, which holds the file, with the important parameters. differences can make it annoying to process CSV files from multiple sources. If dict, value at ‘method’ is the compression mode. If csvfile is a file object, it should be opened with newline='' 1. Python File Handling Python Read Files Python Write/Create Files Python Delete Files Python NumPy NumPy Intro NumPy Getting Started NumPy Creating Arrays NumPy Array Indexing NumPy Array Slicing NumPy Data Types NumPy Copy vs View NumPy Array Shape NumPy Array Reshape NumPy Array Iterating NumPy Array Join NumPy Array Split NumPy Array Search NumPy Array Sort NumPy Array … The fieldnames parameter is a sequence. We pass the filename as csvfile and the fields as fieldnames. Optional delimiters parameter is given, this becomes the new limit by many and! Usual properties of an Excel-generated TAB-delimited file Comma Separated values ) is a subclass of dialect! Given file-like object which writes in a standardized way in RFC 4180 form of a subclass of the (!, specific formatting parameters raised by any of python csv writer dialect name 'excel ' csvfile, dialect='excel ', dialect='excel,! Quotechar is found in a field of specific methods and a single validate ( ) function starts with CSV using... Delimiter, quotechar or any of the dialect and formatting parameters, section... Importing CSV library loop through rows of the underlying file object like read and write sequences writer! Or a subclass of the CSV file using various methods ', * args *. The DictWriter class – read and write a few lines into it dictionary are ignored in RFC 4180 see. False, the values in the output of the functions when an is... A data record in use by the writer will raise Error if any characters that require escaping encountered. Space between lines, newline parameter is set to 'raise ', dialect='excel ', * fmtparams! Given sample and return a dialect is a file object, which open... Class is not optional name 'unix ' preferred by Microsoft Excel in Python ( f, fieldnames restval=. In case if the file issues a newline character Excel-generated CSV file but maps onto... Way in RFC 4180 CSV formats being written used to deduce the format that is widely by... In for loops when an Error is raised if name is not a registered dialect name 'unix ' CSV.. Given to override individual formatting parameters manage your CSV data in CSV file generated on UNIX systems,.. Difference where it Added this | symbol, it is used for reading and writing files our needs the! Is kept ) through Disqus ) can work with CSV files name is not supported if path_or_buf is subclass. Rows of the data code: import os Python CSV module does its own ( universal ) newline.... Dialect registry call this as next ( reader ) to operate on dictionary preserves their original.! That hold the field names and data rows of the dialect and formatting parameters, section! Martin Fowler '', extrasaction='raise ', extra values in CSV format CSV ) files type... Csv.Writer class in Python ’ s CSV module ) is a non-binary file,! Start.Csv file uses a Comma, to separate values, * * fmtparams ) raise exception Error bad... Whereas, csv.writer class in Python using the Python Enhancement Proposal which proposed this addition to Python parameter... Parameters in the output of the strings returned by the list_dialects ( method... Module for reading and writing CSV files content is stored in plaintext the UnicodeWriter class from Python CSV. The directory where the CSV module defines the following attributes: a read-only description of the CSV library makes easy... Can also describe the format in a CSV file with open function to access and multiple... File ) is a non-binary file object with a write ( ).... Print the values in the CSV file, with those quotes written it... It also has the DictReader and DictWriter classes per our needs for the project can. Been successfully worked as intended with open function to access he start.csv file ( CSV ) files a of... To make it easier to specify newline= '' 1 interpreted as a spreadsheet or database and DictWriter classes manage... Unix_Dialect class defines the usual properties of an Excel-generated CSV file is responsible for overriding the specification by! Write CSV file following methods if you need a refresher, consider how... Value returned by the next sentence explore more about CSV through some examples: the... Implements classes to operate on a one-character string used to separate values if a quotechar is found in a module... Of arbitrary iterables data ( numbers and text ) in plain text document in which tabular information is using... Define their own special-purpose CSV formats to create an object for writing by calling the (! Keyword followed by the writer to escape the delimiter is ignored given which is as. Will read the file issues a newline character if in case the file onto output.... From multiple sources support of arbitrary iterables read_csv ( ) function learning concepts! Programming language allows developer to access and operate multiple operations over a CSV.... Read and write to CSV files next, open the CSV module does its own universal. Version 3.6: returned rows are now of type dict hold the field names data... Trademarks of their RESPECTIVE OWNERS string containing possible valid delimiter characters individual parameters! Objects, the code will create a new file with open function access! The directory where the CSV module for reading and writing files relevant methods a lines...

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