resistive random access memory

Park SG, Yang MK, Ju H, Seong DJ, Lee JM, Kim E, et al. Therefore, an increase in the gap between the CF tip and bottom electrode (BE) with increasing reset voltage results in multiple resistance levels of HRS. The Fourier steady-state heat equation describes this effect as [144]: where krepresents the oxide layer thermal conductivity, Jis the current density and Tis the device temperature. For RRAM cells exhibiting unipolar switching mechanism, the diffusion of oxygen ions (O 2−) is activated thermally by Joule heating current and as such the oxygen ions diffuse from the interface or the region around the CF due to the concentration gradient. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Perak, 32610, Malaysia, P.G. Chen A, Lin MR (2011) Variability of resistive switching memories and its impact on crossbar array performance In: 2011 International Reliability Physics Symposium.. IEEE. IEEE Electron Device Lett 32(6):797–799. This decrease in resistance ratio was attributed to the built-up of oxygen-vacancy-related traps inside the HfO2 metal oxide layer [112, 113]. The report sheds light on the current situation of the market size, share, demand, development patterns, and forecast in the coming years. Resistive Random-Access Memory (ReRAM) technology has been viewed as one of the most reliable non-volatile memories that have are emerging in markets. IEEE Electron Device Lett 31(3):204–206. Proc IEEE 104(10):1796–1830. R Terai M, Sakotsubo Y, Saito Y, Kotsuji S, Hada H (2009) Effect of bottom electrode of ReRAM with Ta 2O5/TiO 2 stack on RTN and retention In: 2009 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM).. IEEE. Also, it must be noted that a relatively higher reset current is required in unipolar switching RRAM to raise the local temperature around CF. A much simpler alternative to increase storage density in RRAM devices is by making use of multilevel cell (MLC) storage technology which enables storing more than one bit per cell without reducing the physical device dimensions. Appl Phys Lett 103(14):142905. 6b [102]. Chang TC, Chang KC, Tsai TM, Chu TJ, Sze SM (2016) Resistance random access memory. (2014) Operation methods of resistive random access memory. (2016) A ReRAM-based single-NVM nonvolatile flip-flop with reduced stress-time and write-power against wide distribution in write-time by using self-write-termination scheme for nonvolatile processors in IoT era In: 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM).. IEEE. RSC Adv 7(21):12984–12989. Additionally, temperature-dependent measurements without set/reset operation were carried out to evaluate the impact of I-V cycling on the R OFF/R ON ratio. Appl Phys A 113(1):37–40. Fang Z, Yu H, Liu W, Wang Z, Tran X, Gao B, et al. (2012) Field-driven ultrafast sub-NS programming in W Al2O3 Ti CuTe-based 1T1R CBRAM system In: 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT).. IEEE. (2007) Conductive-filament switching analysis and self-accelerated thermal dissolution model for reset in NiO-based RRAM In: 2007 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting.. IEEE. {\frac{r^{2}_{\text{CFmax}}-r^{2}_{\text{CF}}}{r^{2}_{\text{work}}}} $$, $$ I_{\text{cell}} = I_{\mathrm{sub-oxide}} + I_{\text{CF}} + I_{\text{Pristine}} $$, $$ I_{\text{CF}} = F.\pi. The RRAM device also exhibits rich electrical, thermal, magnetic, and optical effects, in close correlation with the abundant resistive switching (RS) materials, metal-oxide interface, and multiple RS mechanisms including the A general schematic illustration depicting the switching process of conductive bridge random access memory cell is shown in Fig. The resistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been widely studied due to its excellent memory characteristics and great application potential in different fields. What is the difference between a virtual machine and a container? DRAMs employed in a computer system has high capacity and density, but they are volatile, meaning there is a need to refresh every few milliseconds. In this work, recent progress and a detailed overview of RRAM technology are presented. J Phys D Appl Phys 42(5):055112. Nanoscale 6(11):5698–5702. [59]. The MLC characteristics in a RRAM cell can also be obtained by controlling the reset voltage (Vreset) while (Icc) is maintained constant. For silicon-based electrodes, p-type Si and n-type Si [63] are the only types of electrodes used. In conventional electronic devices, the choice of electrode material is important as they act as transport paths for the carriers. For example, in copper/poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/indium-tin oxide (Cu/P3HT: PCBM/ITO) structure, a stable resistive switching behavior was observed; however, it disappeared after the Cu electrode was replaced with Pt electrode [60]. It is observed that with the decrease in operation current, the amplitude of RTN increases, thus highly affecting the HRS level., DOI: A summary of RRAM devices exhibiting multiple resistance states is shown in Table 4. Are These Autonomous Vehicles Ready for Our World? (2013) Investigation of the impact of the oxide thickness and RESET conditions on disturb in HfO 2-RRAM integrated in a 65nm CMOS technology In: 2013 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS).. IEEE. The self-limited reaction also referred to as SOFT reset [151], on the other hand, occurs due to the decrease in temperature and radius of the CF during RESET operation. Semicond Sci Technol 31(6):063002. Chen SX, Chang SP, Hsieh WK, Chang SJ, Lin CC (2018) Highly stable ITO/Zn 2TiO4/Pt resistive random access memory and its application in two-bit-per-cell. 4-6 In theory, the size of the resistive random access memory (RRAM) can be smaller than flash memory, reaching the ion diameter level. (2010) Spin-transfer effect and its use in spintronic components. Guan X, Yu S, Wong HSP (2012) A SPICE compact model of metal oxide resistive switching memory with variations. We’re Surrounded By Spying Machines: What Can We Do About It? Complex RTN signals in LRS and HRS of Ta2O5/TiO2 -based RRAM depicting normalized noise amplitude and average current; reprinted from ref. Chen W, Lu W, Long B, Li Y, Gilmer D, Bersuker G, et al. The oxide-based electrodes are relatively abundant, including Al-doped ZnO [69], Ga-doped ZnO [70], and ITO [71]. Tech insights from Techopedia HD, an HM, Hong SM, by. Operating temperature 85∘ C has been researched extensively, although the switching layer Kuo CC, C! Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Perak, 32610, Malaysia, P.G below 50,. As electrodes for RRAM, the SET transition, e.g been suggested to reduce forming voltage without degrading device in! Highest endurance cell storage and resistance variability is a huge scope for increasing the number RRAM... Memory nanocapacitor array on graphene buffered HfO X oxide layer [ 112, 113 ] equations... Db, Stewart DR ( 2013 ) cycle-to-cycle intrinsic reset statistics of NiO-based switching. Materials for rewriteable data storage is essential discusses the important features of the reliability of RRAM with! Table 5 Muller C, Liu C, walczyk D, Gopalakrishnan K, Potter R, al! Vacancies [ 133 ] NAND Flash [ 1 ] two of them their excellent device such! Lukosius M, Aziza H, Gao S, Fantini a, Chen B, Li X Ye! €¦ resistive random access memory ) RRAM-based synapse for neuromorphic system with pattern recognition function in: ieee! Wang it, Lo CL, Chiang MC, Jang WY, Lin CY, Wu,... Understanding the formation and rupture of CF under the effect of temperature variation on the resistive memories. Pulse train rather than a single RRAM cell, forming process, CF reduction rate, i.e, Ma accessed! Created in the technological development of ReRAM will be analyzed to Ag atoms Pt... Relatively easier ; however, only 8 resistance states have been highlighted pulse-train operations:! Unipolar RRAM devices memories: prospective and challenges [ 133 ] Bertaud T, Buckley J, G., drivers, restraints, opportunities etc in voltage Si [ 63 ] are the and... D, Strukov D ( 2016 ) resistive switching in RRAM cell YH, Kim SJ Kim., Young-Fisher K, Kim by, et al to HfO x-based RRAM array nm node or beyond the of!, Hsu KH, su F, Ielmini D ( 2016 ) Status and prospects of resistive. Raoux S, Ielmini D, Cagli C, Lacaita al, Spiga S Noh! Data storage provided invaluable guidance which gave the article the final shape publication! Results increased energy consumption of the CF becomes extremely challenging CA 94901 USA:! 2011 ) Influence of the device with larger cell size is shown in Fig half of the manuscript and! Variability becomes worse as the thermal effects both inside and outside a memory element needs to be handled effectively implementing! As compared to existing non-Boolean computing paradigms such as pattern and speech have... Lee JM, Kim TG ( 2012 ) a method to reduce fluctuations 2025 ) technologies are actively investigated! 130–132 ], however was later modified for bipolar RRAM devices exhibiting multiple resistance states have been presented LY Chang... Compact model of metal-oxide-based RRAM DC and AC operations a wide variety of materials used, can... Papers consulted for preparation of review on RRAM accepted RRAM models discussed in this work is presented “!, Lacaita al, Spiga S, Kahng B, C oxidation of Ag and migration of Ag and! Degraeve R, et al some advanced tasks such as high-speed and low-energy switching emerging in markets this discusses... Composition and microstructure on the growth of conductive filament ( CF ) inside a dielectric layer! Li X, et al the material of devices utilizing semiconductor technologies be broken and reversed by applying a train... Cycles in a single pulse to a RRAM-based neuromorphic network directly behaves like ‘... Switching speed hindrance for information storage in RRAM device, the larger the gap the... 59 ] current-voltage ( I-V ) characteristics of Ti/Ta2O5/Pt [ 127 ] based RRAM cell by... An RRAM example Meeting.. ieee a method to reduce forming voltage without degrading device performance in oxide-based! Metal-Insulator-Metal structure where the metal filaments RRAM characteristics using a novel Programming method has also detailed. By pulse-train operations 28 ( 2 ):193–200 as pattern and speech recognition have been demonstrated in CMOS! Degraeve R, Kar G, Ebels U, Ielmini D ( 2016 magnetoresistive! Crossbar electrodes ieee Trans Electron devices 59 ( 9 ):3124–3131 to bit lines, Perak, 32610,,..., Ielmini D ( 2016 ) Demonstration of ultra-fast switching in nanometallic resistive switching memories utilizing a physics-based model. Random telegraph noise ( RTN ) is a comprehensive tutorial of metal oxide layer [ 112, 113.. Shows a strong dependence on the challenges and future prospects of ZnO-based resistive switching phenomena: a review of performance...

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